Authors |
Stephen Hawking George Ellis |
---|---|

Country | United Kingdom |

Language | English |

Subject | General relativity |

Genre | Non-fiction |

Publisher | Cambridge University Press |

Publication date | 1973 |

Media type | Print ( Hardcover and Paperback) |

Pages | 384 |

ISBN | 978-0521200165 |

* The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* is a 1973
treatise on the
theoretical physics of
spacetime by the physicist
Stephen Hawking and the mathematician
George Ellis.

In the mid-1970s, advances in the technologies of astronomical observations â radio, infrared, and X-ray astronomy â opened up the Universe of exploration. New tools became necessary. In this book, Hawking and Ellis attempt to establish the
axiomatic foundation for the geometry of four-dimensional spacetime as described by Albert Einstein's
general theory of relativity and to derive its physical consequences for
singularities, horizons, and
causality. Whereas the tools for studying Euclidean geometry were a straightedge and a compass, those needed to investigate curved spacetime are test particles and light rays.^{
[2]} According to the mathematical physicist
John Baez from the
University of California, Riverside, *The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* was "the first book to provide a detailed description of the revolutionary topological methods introduced by Penrose and Hawking in the early seventies."^{
[3]}

Hawking co-wrote the book with Ellis, while he was
postdoctoral fellow at the
University of Cambridge. In his 1988 book *
A Brief History of Time*, he describes *The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* as "highly technical" and unreadable for the layperson.

The book, now considered a classic, has also appeared in paperback format and has been reprinted many times.^{
a} A fiftieth anniversary edition is scheduled for publication by Cambridge University Press in February 2023.

- Preface
- 1. The Role of Gravity
- 2. Differential Geometry
- 3. General Relativity
- 4. The Physical Significance of Curvature
- 5. Exact Solutions
- 6. Causal Structure
- 7. The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity
- 8. Spaceâtime Singularities
- 9. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
- 10. The Initial Singularity of the Universe
- Appendix A: Translation of An Essay by P. S. Laplace
- Appendix B: Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Birkhoff's Theorem.
- References
- Notation
- Index

Mathematician
Nicholas Michael John Woodhouse at Oxford University considered this book to be an authoritative treatise that could become a classic. He observed that the authors begin with axioms of geometry and physics then derive the consequences in a rigorous fashion. Various well-known exact solutions to Einstein's field equations and their physical meaning are explored. In particular, Hawking and Ellis show that singularities and black holes arise in a large class of plausible solutions. He warned that although this book is self-contained, it is more suitable for specialists rather than new students as it is heavy-going and contains no exercises. He noted that despite the authors' attempt at a rigorous treatment, certain technical terms, such as Lie groups, are used but never explained, and that modern coordinate-free methods are introduced, but not used effectively.^{
[4]}

Theoretical physicist
Rainer Sachs from the University of California, Berkeley, observed that *The Large-Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* was published within just a few years as *Gravitation and Cosmology* by Steven Weinberg and *
Gravitation* by Charles Misner, Kip Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler. He believed these three books can supplement each other and lead students to the forefront of research. Whereas Hawking and Ellis employ global analysis extensively but say relatively little about perturbative methods, the other two books neglect global analysis and cover in great detail perturbations. He believed Hawking and Ellis did a great job summarizing recent developments in the field (as of 1974) and that the intended audience is a doctoral student (or higher) with a strong mathematical background and prior exposure to general relativity. He argued that the core of the books consists of two chapters, Chapter 4 on the significance of spacetime curvature and Chapter 6 on causal structure, and that the most interesting application is the penultimate chapter on black holes. He noted that mathematical arguments are at times difficult to follow and suggested *Techniques of Differential Topology in Relativity* by Roger Penrose for reference. He also noticed a small number of errors, though none affect the general conclusions drawn by the authors. He thought that this book is a "model" presentation on the interplay between mathematics and physics that could become highly influential in the future.^{
[5]}

Theoretical physicist
John Archibald Wheeler of Princeton University recommended this book to anyone interested in the implications of general relativity for cosmology, the singularity theorems, and the physics of black holes, presented in an almost Euclidean fashion, though he acknowledged that this is not a textbook due to its lack of examples and exercises. He praised its 62 illustrative diagrams.^{
[2]}

**^**Hawking, S. W.; Ellis, G. F. R. (1973).*The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09906-4.

**^**Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J. (23 October 2003).*The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology: Celebrating Stephen Hawking's Contributions to Physics*. Cambridge University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-82081-3.- ^
^{a}^{b}Wheeler, John A. (MarchâApril 1975). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime by S. W. Hawking and G. F. R.Ellis". Review.*American Scientist*. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society.**62**(2): 218. JSTOR 27845370. **^**Baez, John; Hillman, Chris (October 1998). "Guide to Relativity Books". Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside. Retrieved August 25, 2019.**^**Woodhouse, Nicholas (1974). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime".*Physical Bulletin*.**25**(6): 238. doi: 10.1088/0031-9112/25/6/029.**^**Sachs, Rainer (April 1974). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime".*Physics Today*. American Institute of Physics.**27**(4): 91â3. Bibcode: 1974PhT....27d..91H. doi: 10.1063/1.3128542. S2CID 121949888.

Authors |
Stephen Hawking George Ellis |
---|---|

Country | United Kingdom |

Language | English |

Subject | General relativity |

Genre | Non-fiction |

Publisher | Cambridge University Press |

Publication date | 1973 |

Media type | Print ( Hardcover and Paperback) |

Pages | 384 |

ISBN | 978-0521200165 |

* The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* is a 1973
treatise on the
theoretical physics of
spacetime by the physicist
Stephen Hawking and the mathematician
George Ellis.

In the mid-1970s, advances in the technologies of astronomical observations â radio, infrared, and X-ray astronomy â opened up the Universe of exploration. New tools became necessary. In this book, Hawking and Ellis attempt to establish the
axiomatic foundation for the geometry of four-dimensional spacetime as described by Albert Einstein's
general theory of relativity and to derive its physical consequences for
singularities, horizons, and
causality. Whereas the tools for studying Euclidean geometry were a straightedge and a compass, those needed to investigate curved spacetime are test particles and light rays.^{
[2]} According to the mathematical physicist
John Baez from the
University of California, Riverside, *The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* was "the first book to provide a detailed description of the revolutionary topological methods introduced by Penrose and Hawking in the early seventies."^{
[3]}

Hawking co-wrote the book with Ellis, while he was
postdoctoral fellow at the
University of Cambridge. In his 1988 book *
A Brief History of Time*, he describes *The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* as "highly technical" and unreadable for the layperson.

The book, now considered a classic, has also appeared in paperback format and has been reprinted many times.^{
a} A fiftieth anniversary edition is scheduled for publication by Cambridge University Press in February 2023.

- Preface
- 1. The Role of Gravity
- 2. Differential Geometry
- 3. General Relativity
- 4. The Physical Significance of Curvature
- 5. Exact Solutions
- 6. Causal Structure
- 7. The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity
- 8. Spaceâtime Singularities
- 9. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
- 10. The Initial Singularity of the Universe
- Appendix A: Translation of An Essay by P. S. Laplace
- Appendix B: Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Birkhoff's Theorem.
- References
- Notation
- Index

Mathematician
Nicholas Michael John Woodhouse at Oxford University considered this book to be an authoritative treatise that could become a classic. He observed that the authors begin with axioms of geometry and physics then derive the consequences in a rigorous fashion. Various well-known exact solutions to Einstein's field equations and their physical meaning are explored. In particular, Hawking and Ellis show that singularities and black holes arise in a large class of plausible solutions. He warned that although this book is self-contained, it is more suitable for specialists rather than new students as it is heavy-going and contains no exercises. He noted that despite the authors' attempt at a rigorous treatment, certain technical terms, such as Lie groups, are used but never explained, and that modern coordinate-free methods are introduced, but not used effectively.^{
[4]}

Theoretical physicist
Rainer Sachs from the University of California, Berkeley, observed that *The Large-Scale Structure of SpaceâTime* was published within just a few years as *Gravitation and Cosmology* by Steven Weinberg and *
Gravitation* by Charles Misner, Kip Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler. He believed these three books can supplement each other and lead students to the forefront of research. Whereas Hawking and Ellis employ global analysis extensively but say relatively little about perturbative methods, the other two books neglect global analysis and cover in great detail perturbations. He believed Hawking and Ellis did a great job summarizing recent developments in the field (as of 1974) and that the intended audience is a doctoral student (or higher) with a strong mathematical background and prior exposure to general relativity. He argued that the core of the books consists of two chapters, Chapter 4 on the significance of spacetime curvature and Chapter 6 on causal structure, and that the most interesting application is the penultimate chapter on black holes. He noted that mathematical arguments are at times difficult to follow and suggested *Techniques of Differential Topology in Relativity* by Roger Penrose for reference. He also noticed a small number of errors, though none affect the general conclusions drawn by the authors. He thought that this book is a "model" presentation on the interplay between mathematics and physics that could become highly influential in the future.^{
[5]}

Theoretical physicist
John Archibald Wheeler of Princeton University recommended this book to anyone interested in the implications of general relativity for cosmology, the singularity theorems, and the physics of black holes, presented in an almost Euclidean fashion, though he acknowledged that this is not a textbook due to its lack of examples and exercises. He praised its 62 illustrative diagrams.^{
[2]}

**^**Hawking, S. W.; Ellis, G. F. R. (1973).*The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09906-4.

**^**Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J. (23 October 2003).*The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology: Celebrating Stephen Hawking's Contributions to Physics*. Cambridge University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-82081-3.- ^
^{a}^{b}Wheeler, John A. (MarchâApril 1975). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime by S. W. Hawking and G. F. R.Ellis". Review.*American Scientist*. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society.**62**(2): 218. JSTOR 27845370. **^**Baez, John; Hillman, Chris (October 1998). "Guide to Relativity Books". Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside. Retrieved August 25, 2019.**^**Woodhouse, Nicholas (1974). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime".*Physical Bulletin*.**25**(6): 238. doi: 10.1088/0031-9112/25/6/029.**^**Sachs, Rainer (April 1974). "The Large Scale Structure of SpaceâTime".*Physics Today*. American Institute of Physics.**27**(4): 91â3. Bibcode: 1974PhT....27d..91H. doi: 10.1063/1.3128542. S2CID 121949888.